WHO warns global coronavirus situation is “getting worse”

The head of the agency has recalled that in the last nine days more than 100,000 new cases were reported daily.

Although the situation of coronavirus in Europe is improving, at the same time it is getting worse globally, the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO), Tedros  Adhanom  Ghebreyesus,has announced..

“Nearly 7 million cases of covid-19 have been reported to WHO and nearly 400,000 deaths,” the official said in a briefing.

The head of the agency also recalled that more than 100,000 new cases were reported globally in the last nine days. On Sunday, this number surpassed 136,000 in a single day.

“Almost 75% of yesterday’s cases come from 10 countries, mainly in the Americas and South Asia,” said Ghebreyesus. “Most countries in the African region are still experiencing an increase in the number of covid-19 cases, and some report cases in new geographic areas.”

“Complacency” is the greatest threat

The Director-General of WHO also stressed that there are “an increasing number of cases in parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia”. “At the same time, it encourages us that several countries around the world are seeing positive signs,” he added.

Ghebreyesus has also warned that “complacency” is the greatest threat in these nations. “We continue to call for active surveillance to ensure that the virus does not recover, especially as mass gatherings of all kinds are beginning to resume in some countries,” he emphasized.

“Protest, but safely”

In the face of protests against police brutality that began in the U.S. and already envelops in different countries, Ghebreyesus  has stressed that WHO “fully supports equality and the global movement against racism” and “rejects discrimination of all kinds,” but “encourages all protesters around the world to do so safely.”

“As far as possible, keep at least 1 meter from others, wash your hands, cover your cough and wear a mask if you attend a protest,” the head of the agency said.

In addition, the official has again urged countries to strengthen “the fundamental public health measures that remain the basis of the response: finding, isolating, evaluating and addressing each case, and tracking and quasing each contact.” Last week, the director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Robert Redfield,said that mass protests currently taking place in several cities across the country can become “a breeding ground”  for  covid-19, while admitting that the use of tear gas can further aggravate the situation and contribute to the spread of the de

The relationship between diabetes and osteoporosis

People with diabetes, particularly with type 1 diabetes, often have a lower bone quality and an increased risk of fractures. People who have had the disease for a long time, who have poor blood sugar control and who take insulin have the highest risk of fractures.

The onset of type 1 diabetes usually occurs at an early age when bone mass is still on the rise. People with type 1 diabetes may have a lower maximum bone mass. The maximum bone mass is the maximum strength and density that the bones reach. People typically reach their peak bone mass between the ages of 20 and 30. When the peak of bone mass is low, it can increase the risk of osteoporosis later in life.

Some of the complications of diabetes, such as nerve damage, muscle weakness, episodes of low blood sugar, and vision problems can increase the risk of falls and fractures.

Managing osteoporosis

Strategies for preventing and treating osteoporosis in people with diabetes are the same as for people without diabetes.

Nutrition. A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D is important for healthy bones. Some good sources of calcium include low-fat dairy products, dark green leafy vegetables, and calcium-enriched beverages and foods. There are many sources of calcium that are low in fat and sugar. In addition, supplements can help meet daily calcium and other important nutrients requirements.

Vitamin D plays an important role in calcium absorption and bone health. It is synthesized in the skin through exposure to sunlight. Although many people manage to get enough vitamin D naturally, older people are often deficient in this vitamin, in part, due to the limited time they spend outdoors. Vitamin D supplements may be needed to ensure adequate daily intake.

Exercise. Like muscles, bones are living tissues that respond to exercise by becoming stronger. The best exercises for the bones are those that require sustaining their own weight and those of endurance. Exercises that require holding one’s weight make one strive to work against gravity. These include walking, climbing stairs and dancing. Resistance exercises, such as lifting weights, can also strengthen bones. Regular exercise can help prevent bone loss and, by improving balance and flexibility, can reduce the risk of falls and bone fracture. Exercise is especially important for people with diabetes, as exercise helps lower blood glucose levels.

Healthy lifestyle. Smoking is bad for the bones as well as for the heart and lungs. Women who smoke tend to go through menopause earlier, causing bone loss at a younger age. In addition, people who smoke may absorb less calcium from their diets. Alcohol can also negatively affect bone health. People who drink excessively are more prone to bone loss and fractures. Avoiding tobacco and alcohol can also help with diabetes management.

Bone density test. Specialized tests known as bone mineral density (BMD) tests that measure bone density in various parts of the body. These tests can detect osteoporosis before a bone fracture occurs and predict a person’s chance of breaking a bone in the future.

This test can measure the bone density of your hip or spine. People with diabetes should talk to their doctors to see if they are candidates for bone density testing.

Medications. As with diabetes, there is no cure for osteoporosis. However, there are some drugs that have been approved by the U.S. Food  and  Drug  Administration for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and in men. The drugs have also been approved for use in both women and men with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

Ways to avoid Diabetes complications

Diabetes care is a lifelong responsibility. Consider these 10 strategies to avoid complications with diabetes. Diabetes is a serious disease. Following your diabetes treatment plan leads to a permanent commitment. However, your effort is worth it. Careful diabetes care can lower your risk of serious, even fatal, complications.

Here are ways to take an active role in diabetes care and enjoy a healthy future.

Members of your diabetes care team, such as a doctor or primary health care provider, an educator member of diabetes nurses and a dietitian, can help you learn the basics of diabetes and support you in the process. However, your condition is dependent on you.

Learn as much as you can about diabetes. Make healthy eating and physical activity part of your daily routine. Maintain a healthy weight.

Check your blood sugar level and follow your doctor’s instructions to monitor it. Take your medicines as directed by your doctor. Ask your diabetes treatment team for help when you need it.

Smoking increases your risk of type 2 diabetes and a variety of diabetes-related complications, including:

Decreased blood flow in the legs and feet, which can lead to infections, ulcers and possible removal of a part of the body through surgery (amputation)

Heart disease

Stroke

Eye disease, which can cause blindness

Nerve damage

Kidney disease

Premature death

Talk to your doctor about ways to quit smoking or stop using other types of tobacco.

Like diabetes, high blood pressure can damage blood vessels. High cholesterol is also worrisome, as the damage is often more severe and faster if you have diabetes. When these conditions add up, they can lead to a heart attack, stroke, or other serious, life-threatening illnesses.

Eating healthy, low-fat foods and exercising regularly can greatly contribute to the control of high blood pressure and cholesterol. Your doctor may also recommend that you take prescription medications, if needed.

Get two to four diabetes checks per year, plus routine physical and eye exams.

During the physical exam, your doctor will ask about your diet and physical activity and check you for diabetes-related complications, such as signs of kidney damage, nerve damage and heart disease, as well as other medical problems.

The eye care specialist will check for signs of cataracts, glaucoma and retinal damage.

Diabetes makes you more likely to get certain diseases. Routine vaccinations can help prevent them. Ask your doctor about the following vaccines:

Flu vaccine. An annual flu shot can help you stay healthy during flu season and prevent serious complications of the flu vaccine.

Pneumonia vaccine. Sometimes, only one application of the pneumonia vaccine is required. However, if you have diabetes complications or are 65 or older, you may need a booster.

Hepatitis B vaccine. The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for adults with diabetes who have not been vaccinated before and are under 60 years of age. If you’re 60 or older and have never had this vaccine, talk to your doctor if you should.

Other vaccines. Keep the tetanus vaccine up to date (usually applied every 10 years). Your doctor may also recommend other vaccines.

Diabetes can increase your chances of getting gum infections. Brush your teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, floss once a day, and schedule dental exams at least twice a year. Call your dentist if you have bleeding, redness, or swelling in your gums.

High blood sugar levels can decrease blood flow and damage nerves in your feet. Left untreated, wounds and blisters can lead to serious infections. Diabetes can cause pain, tingling or loss of sensation in your feet.

To prevent foot problems, do the following:

Wash your feet daily with warm water. Avoid dipping your feet, as this can dry the skin.

Dry your feet gently, especially between your toes.

Moisturize your feet and ankles with a lotion or petroleum jelly. Don’t put oils or creams between your fingers, as extra moisture can lead to infections.

Check your feet daily for calluses, blisters, sores, redness or swelling.

Ask your doctor if you have a sore or other foot problem that doesn’t start to heal within a few days. If you have a foot ulcer, an open sore, see your doctor right away.

Do not walk barefoot indoors or outdoors.

If you have diabetes or other cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking or high blood pressure, your doctor may recommend that you take a low-dose aspirin every day to help reduce your risk of heart attacks and strokes. If you don’t have additional cardiovascular risk factors, your risk of bleeding that causes aspirin use is likely to be greater than the benefits it can offer. Ask your doctor if daily aspirin treatment is right for you, and if so, what the ideal dose would be.

Alcohol can cause high or low blood sugar, depending on how much you drink and whether you eat it at the same time. If you decide to drink, do so in moderation; that is, no more than one drink per day for women of all ages and for men over 65, and two drinks per day for men under 65.

Whenever you drink, do so during a meal or snack, and remember to add the calories of any alcoholic beverage you eat to your daily calorie count. Also, keep in mind that alcohol can cause low blood sugar later on, especially in people who use insulin.

If you’re stressed, you’re likely to neglect your usual diabetes care routine. Set limits for managing stress. Prioritize your tasks. Learn relaxation techniques.

Sleeps a lot. And, first and foremost, maintain a positive attitude. Diabetes care is under your control. If you’re willing to do your part, diabetes won’t stop you from leading an active, healthy life.

Lupus affects muscles, tendons and joints

It is common for people with lupus to experience muscle aches (myalgias) or inflammation of certain muscle groups (myositis), which cause weakness and loss of strength. More than 90 percent of people with lupus may experience joint or muscle pain at some point in the course of the disease. More than half of people who develop lupus say joint pain is the first symptom that appears.

Muscle pain and sensitivity, especially during periods when disease activity (breakouts) increases, occurs in up to 50 percent of people who have lupus. Symptoms may have different causes. It is important for your doctor to determine the cause of your symptoms, as treatments are very varied. Rheumatologists are doctors who specialize in joints, muscles, and bones.

Muscle aches and discomfort can be from symptoms that occur when the body is responding to some type of inflammation, muscle atrophy (weakness) or true myositis.

Inflammation

Inflammation is the most common cause of muscle pain. Whenever major inflammation occurs (tonsillitis, hepatitis, cancer, lupus, acute heart attack, etc.), signs and symptoms often show fevers, sweats, chills, fatigue, weight loss and various muscle aches, discomfort and weakness. These nonspecific and non-diagnostic symptoms are signs that the body is unable to cope with the process that is overwhelming it. Because lupus is an inflammatory disease, it can cause some of these problems. These myalgias are a secondary part of the disease in general.

Lucid arthritis

Lucid arthritis causes pain, stiffness, swelling, tenderness and heat in the joints. The joints that are most affected are the most distal of the midline of the body, such as the fingers, wrists, elbows, knees, ankles and toes. General stiffness when waking, which gradually improves as the day goes on, is a key point of lucid arthritis. However, there may also be joint pain during the day. Several joints are usually involved and inflammation can affect similar joints on both sides of the body.

Compared to rheumatoid arthritis, lucid arthritis is less disabling and less likely to cause joint destruction. Less than 10 percent of people with lucid arthritis develop deformity in the hands and feet from bone or cartilaginous weakening.

Muscle atrophy (loss of muscle strength) may occur if arthritis becomes chronic.

Miositis lúpica

Some people with lupus develop myositis, an inflammation of the skeletal muscles that causes weakness and loss of strength. Lucid myositis often affects the muscles of the neck, pelvis, thighs, shoulders, and arms. The first symptoms are difficulty climbing stairs and difficulty getting up from a chair. Later symptoms may occur such as difficulty lifting objects and placing them on a shelf, lifting your arm to comb or brush your hair, getting out of the bathtub, and even lifting your head or turning on the bed.

An exercise program overseen by a physical therapist can help restore normal muscle strength and function.

Drug-induced myasthenia

Myasthenia (muscle weakness) may also be a side effect of certain medications used to treat lupus and related diseases, such as prednisone and other corticosteroids, cholesterol-lowering medications, and hydroxychloroquine(Plaquenil®). Therefore, drug-induced muscle disease should be ruled out as a cause of weakness if you are taking any of these medications, as drug-induced myasthenia generally does not produce elevated levels of muscle enzymes as seen in lucid myositis.

You can adjust or stop taking medications that are causing muscle weakness so that there is an improvement in muscle strength.

Tendinitis and bursitis

A tendon is a strong structure of hard fibers like a rope that binds muscles to bones. A bursa  is a small sac that contains a viscous fluid that is usually located next to a joint and allows muscles, bones and tendons to move easily. Tendinitis (inflammation of a tendon) and bursitis (inflammation of a pouch) usually occur due to damage or overuse of a joint. Pain is the main symptom of both conditions. Different parts of the body may be affected and the most common parts are elbows (tennis elbow), fingers (index finger) and shoulders. In addition, both tendons and  bursas  are aligned with the synovial membrane, which is a target for inflammations in lucid arthritis.

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Pressure on the central nerve of the wrist causes a condition called carpal tunnel syndrome. It is characterized by tingling, numbness and pain in the fingers, and sometimes throughout the hand. Several diseases, including lupus, can cause carpal tunnel syndrome. When carpal tunnel syndrome occurs because of lupus, it’s because inflammation in the wrist is making pressure on the nerves.

Keys to Living with Rheumatoid Arthritis

A person with rheumatoid arthritis has to face many changes and challenges in their life.

After a diagnosis  of rheumatoid arthritis, unpleasant words such as disability, deformity, limitations… Words that, combined with reserved prognosis and insecurity, can make the patient feel with rheumatoid arthritis hopeless, disheartened, powerless, overrun with negative thoughts and afraid of the future.

Maintain a positive attitude! The only way is a positive approach to rheumatoid arthritis. Learn to accept your limitations and perform better, and readjust your life.

Here are some of the keys:

Knowledge is power

Learn. Find and read everything that falls into your hands and help you understand and know your illness. The Internet allows you to access more information than ever before, and there is much to learn: symptom recognition, treatment options, how to control pain, role of diet and exercise…

In addition, the Internet provides you with tools to communicate with other patients with the same disease, to share common experiences that will provide support and help you gain perspective and establish new relationships of companionship and friendship with other patients who understand you perfectly, because they share your  same problem.

Stay motivated

When the pain is present, it’s hard not to fall apart. However, it is essential that you stay positive and motivated:

Always focus on what can be done, rather than what you can’t

Establish strategies and goals to be met to live your life to its full potential.

Force yourself to stay active and retain as much independence as you can.

Work on emotions to banish sadness and depression, end loneliness, and avoid feelings of helplessness.

In addition, remaining active physically strengthens the person with rheumatoid arthritis, maintains their functional joints and limits the progression of the disease.

Life is worth living

Even if chronic pain limits you, you still have a lot of skills left, and you need to focus your energy on them. Organize yourself to use your time and energy on the most important things, and enjoy them: pain will be present whether you do it or not. Participate in the daily activities (shopping, visits, work, travel, etc.) and enjoy the social activities you like: you will see that you still have a lot of life ahead of you.

There are different treatments that can help you

Ask your doctor: There are many treatments on the market that can help you manage the pain and other symptoms of your condition. Ask your medical team to show you your options and to let you know about their pros and cons.

Explain your needs

Living with rheumatoid arthritis changes daily life. Activities and habits that were previously simple or obvious, now become difficult to overcome. Therefore, the disease affects not only the affected person, but their entire environment: family, friends, co-workers… They will also need to accept and adjust to changes.

Communicate your needs and feelings to them, and share your concerns about the disease with them. You didn’t ask to be here… But neither do they. And sometimes it will be difficult for them to put on your skin and understand how you feel if you don’t explain it to them.

Use relaxation and stress management techniques

It’s easy to get depressed and crumble when faced with rheumatoid arthritis and its problems, as well as new difficulties, to the challenge of adjusting your life to a chronic disease. And the resulting stress negatively affects the evolution of the disease.

Meditation is useful for decreasing muscle tension and stress caused by fatigue and pain. Rheumatoid arthritis pays not only a physical toll, but also a mental toll. Sometimes, it is simply necessary to focus on other things, clarify the mind, and relaxation manages to soothe both the body and the mind.

Focus on your quality of life

It is imperative that you focus on how to maintain the highest possible quality of life. You should focus on positive thoughts, what you still have and that you can use, rather than what you’ve lost.

Living with rheumatoid arthritis becomes much lighter if you think positively, maintain an active lifestyle and set realistic goals.

You can live with Lupus

It is only known to be an autoimmune pathology and mostly affects the female sex. In fact, for every 9 women who have it, only one man gets lupus.

Andthis is a very heterogeneous disease. There are people who are engaged with renal commitment and others in which haematological manifestations of blood cells predominate, for example. There is also skin lupus, which affects only the skin and not the rest of the noble organs of our body.

In general, how does lupus operate? This disease causes inflammation of some organs, such as the kidneys; the membranes that cover the heart and lungs, and the brain, which over time can deteriorate them if not controlled. It also affects the joints and blood vessels. As for risk factors, the only identifiable is genetic inheritance. “However, having a frontline family member, parents or siblings, with lupus gives you a better risk of developing it, but that’s relative. Not necessarily a mother with the disease will pass it on to her children,” says Dr. Llanos.

Symptoms of this pathology are varied and may include: hair loss, spots on the skin, change in the color of the hands when exposed to cold, mouth ulcers, low fever, decreased white blood cells, anemia and low platelets.

“The most common is that the clinical manifestations of lupus occur gradually, that it does not present as an acute picture. Clinical examination of these symptoms, along with some laboratory tests, allows us to make the diagnosis, says the specialist. In the face of suspicion of having the disease, it is ideal that the patient always asks her GP first. If he deems it appropriate, he will refer her with a rheumatologist to follow a well-directed therapy.”

Treatment of this disease involves administering immunosuppressive patients. These drugs, which lower the body’s natural defenses, basically seek to modulate the immune system so that it stops perceiving the same as a threat and does not continue to be attacked as if it were defending itself from an external agent. Depending on the clinical manifestations of the disease and how the affected person responds, the intensity of treatment is defined, which is usually lifelong. Having lupus increases cardiovascular risk in these patients, compared to healthy people of the same age, so controlling this aspect is as significant as tracking the disease itself.

Notwithstanding the  above, the main thing is to understand that you can live with lupus. The singer and actress, known internationally, Selena Gómez, has shown far that it is possible to lead a normal life from a family, work and social point of view. Today a person committed to their treatment and adopting a healthy lifestyle can function normally despite suffering from this disease.” Patients should not be scared, they should approach the centres where they find a treatment team with which they feel welcomed and confident, so that they can clarify their doubts, their fears and all the apprehensions that the treatment or manifestations of the disease can causethem.”.

Recommendations

In general, those with lupus should:

• Avoid smoking.

• Keep a regular check on the progression of your disease.

• Control cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, sedentary lifestyles, smoking, obesity).

• Avoid exposure to the sun and always use photoprotective about factor 55.

• Perform proper physical activity.

Diabetes. Carbohydrate Count

To count the grams of carbohydrates in a meal, you need to know how many carbohydrates there are in each type of food you eat. This includes everything you eat, whether it’s a slice of bread, a bowl of lettuce or a tablespoon of salad dressing. Most packaged foods have labels that say how many carbohydrates are in a serving. Carbohydrate guides can also be helpful. You can get them through diabetes educators and the American Diabetes Association.).

To find out how many carbohydrates are in foods that aren’t packaged, you’ll need to know the standard portions of carbohydrate-containing foods. Each serving size or serving standard has about 15 grams of carbohydrates.

By using the amount of grams of carbohydrates in a meal, you can calculate how much insulin should be given. This is based on your personal proportion of insulin-carbohydrates.

For example: Your doctor may recommend that you take 1 unit of fast-acting insulin for every 10 to 15 grams of carbohydrates you consume. So if your meal has 50 grams of carbohydrates and your doctor says you need 1 unit of insulin for every 10 grams of carbohydrates, you’ll need 5 units of insulin to prevent your blood sugar from becoming above the ideal limits after your meal.

Your insulin-carb ratio may change over time. In some people it will vary from one meal to the other. You could administer 1 unit of insulin for every 10 grams of carbohydrates for lunch, but 1 unit per 15 grams may be administered during dinner.

Keep the following in mind when counting carbohydrates:

It’s important to control portions. If a package says it contains two servings and you consume the whole package, you should double the number of grams of carbohydrates indicated for a serving.

Proteins, fats and fibers don’t raise your blood sugar much. If you consume a lot of these nutrients in a meal, carbohydrates will become glucose more slowly than they would with a meal that has a small amount of protein, fat and fiber.

Advanced carbohydrate count takes into account the amount of fiber or sugar alcohols in a food. For example, if a food has 5 grams or more of fiber per serving, you can subtract half the amount of fiber from the total amount of grams of carbohydrate. A food that has 30 grams of carbohydrates and 8 grams of fiber would be counted as 26 grams of carbohydrates. If you use fast-acting insulin, you may want to consider sugar alcohols if your food contains more than 5 grams of these. Divide the amount of sugar alcohols in half. Then subtract that amount from the total amount of carbohydrates.

Exercise affects your blood sugar level. Allows you to use less insulin than you would use if you did not exercise. Please note that schedules are important. If you exercise 1 hour after a meal, you may need less insulin for that meal than you would need if you exercised 3 hours after your meal.

By keeping track of what you eat and checking your blood sugar after meals and exercising, you can determine the effect of protein, fats, fibers, and exercise on the amount of insulin you need.

To count carbohydrates and follow a balanced diet:

Talk to a registered dietitian. This can help you plan the amount of carbohydrates you should include in each meal and snack. This includes sweets.

Measure your portions of food. You won’t always have to measure your food. But it might be helpful to do so when you’re learning what a standard portion represents.

Count or grams or servings of carbohydrates.

Eat standard portions of foods that have protein. Foods that have protein (such as beans, eggs, meat, and cheese) are a key part of a balanced diet.

Limit saturated fats. A balanced diet includes a limited amount of healthy fat. Talk to a registered dietitian about how much fat you need in your diet.

Know your daily amount

Your daily amount depends on several things: your weight, your activity level, the diabetes medications you take, and your goals for your blood sugar levels. A registered dietitian or certified diabetes educator will help you plan the amount of carbohydrates to include in each meal and snack.

For most adults, a guideline for the daily amount of carbohydrates is:

Between 45 and 60 grams in each meal. That’s about the same as 3 to 4 servings of carbohydrates.

Between 15 and 20 grams in each snack. That’s about the same as 1 serving of carbohydrates.

He paid 10,000 bitcoins for a couple of pizzas 10 years ago, which now equates to more than $91 million

Bitcoin Pizza Day is held on May 22.

This week we have reached 10 years since the first purchase paid with bitcoin. On May 18, 2010, The Hungarian-born American programmer,  Laszlo  Hanyecz,offered for two large pizzas 10,000  bitcoins,about$41 at the time, but which today amounts to more than $91 million.

“I’ll pay 10, 000 bitcoins  for a couple of pizzas. Maybe two big ones, so I have something left for the next day,” the man wrote on the  Bitcointalk  forum, adding: “What I’m looking for is to be given food in exchange for bitcoins  so I don’t have to order it or prepare it myself, like ordering breakfast in a hotel.”

A few days later, Hanyecz  warned that he “successfully” traded the cryptocurrency for food, after’jercos’,a forum user, whose real name is Jeremy  Sturdivant,had sent him two largepizzas from Papa  John’s. Bitcoin Pizza Day is dominated on May 22.

The programmer claimed that he tries to use cryptocurrency in everyday life. “I’ve bought a lot of stuff over the years with it, I play with Bitcoin’s software and stuff like that, but I try to keep it as a hobby,” he said in a 2018 interview with Cointelegraph. “But I haven’t really used much bitcoin in face-to-face bitcóin  payments. I’ve done it mainly online,” he detailed.

Bitcoin bitcóin  is a digital currency that allows you to make payments over the Internet within a decentralized peer-to-peer,toor peer-to-peer network. Only one algorithm and consensus among users manage transactions. There is no authority or intermediary that controls or can cancel them.

Russia could start mass covid-19 vaccination in early autumn

The process could take up to nine months, according to the director of the Russian National Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology Research, Alexaner  Gíntsburg..

Medical specialists with protective equipment at the N.I. Pirogov Clinical Hospital in Moscow, Russia, may 23, 2020.Kiril  Zykov/Moscow News Agency / Reuters

Mass coronavirus vaccination could begin in Russia in early fall, according to Alexander  Gíntsburg,director of the Russian National Center for Research in Epidemiology and Microbiology at N.F. Gamaleya..

“We hope that mass vaccination [against covid-19] will begin in early autumn,” the TASS agency says.

The specialist stressed that “the entire population will not be able to receive this vaccine at once,” so the vaccination process could run for up to seven or nine months. “At best it will take six months,” said Gothsburg..

According to the Russian doctor, all the experts who participated in the creation of this vaccine have voluntarily tested it on themselves, “finding their safety”. “Not only do we have the antibodies, but we check for the presence of protective antibodies that neutralize the virus,” Gíntsburgsaid.

This Monday Russia has recorded 8,946 new cases of covid-19 infection in 83 of its regions, as well as another 92 deaths. Thus, the positive cases detected in Russia’s 85 administrative subjects since the outbreak began amount to 353,427.

Several studies suggest that the lethality of coronavirus could be much lower than that estimated by WHO

One recent research estimates that the covid-19 mortality rate would range from 0.02% to 0.4%, well below the 3.4% announced by WHO in March.

One of the great unknowns of the coronavirus pandemic is how deadly the disease is. A series of research based on antibody studies and published over the past month suggests that the death rate per covid-19 could be well below WHO’s estimated 3.4% in March.

Thus, one of the most recent research is that of Professor John Ioannidisof Stanford University,  who,  when reviewing global cases, calculated the lethality of the virus in 12 different locations, concluding that it would range from 0.02% to 0.4%. The lowest estimates come from Kobe (Japan) and Oise (France), while the highest estimates are geneva (Switzerland),  Gangelt  (Germany) and Wuhan (China).

In the same vein, on 4 May, a group of German researchers published a study conducted in that European country that estimated an infection lethality rate (IFR) at 0.36%.

Research conducted in the Iranian province of Guilán  and published on May 1, puts covid-19 lethality at 0.12%, while another analysis from Stanford University, published on April 30 and centered in Santa Clara County, California, puts this indicator at 0.17%.

On April 21, the University of Southern California published a study based on the population of Los Angeles County, which holds that the fatality rate of coronavirus would be 0.2%.

Although the figures vary from place to place, depending on a number of factors (demographic changes, health care, methodology, sampling, population density, etc.), none is close to 3.4% calculated by WHO.

Limitations

On the other hand, Ioannidis itself recognizes that an important limitation of its analysis is that the calculations are largely based on impressions that have not yet been peer-reviewed. In addition, some critics of his analysis also question the selection of research on which he relied, which does not include, for example, the largest antibody study to date, which involves a random sample of 70,000 Spanish residents.

This research suggested that 5% of the Spanish population had been infected with the virus, which would put IFR between 1% and 1.3%, three times the highest estimate in Ioannidisanalysis.