Complications and diseases associated with diabetes

Just as it’s important to know what the management of type 1 diabetes is, it’s critical that you know the complications that may occur.


When your blood glucose levels rise because there isn’t enough insulin for your cells to take advantage of, your body starts using the fats consumed to try to produce energy. However, this process produces health-damaging waste called ketones.

It’s important to determine ketones with your medical team, if you have glycemias greater than or equal to 250 mg/dl, infections such as influenza, or have the following symptoms:

• Nausea or vomiting.

• Fruit-scented breath

• Pain in your stomach

• Rapid breathing

• Dry mouth

• Feeling uneasy

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It is the low level of sugar or glucose in your blood less than 60 mg/dL, which can generate symptoms such as sweating, dizziness, confusion, loss of consciousness, among others.


It refers to high blood glucose levels. For example, fasting figure greater than 110 mg/dL. If hyperglycemia is repetitive, it can lead to long-term complications, such as:

With persistently high blood glucose levels, permanent nerve damage can develop that allow you to move, feel cold, heat, or pressure. This occurs because high glucose slowly injures nerves until it affects nerve function.

Sexual impotence

Nerve damage ((diabetic neuropathy)

Numbness and shaking of limbs


Loss of sensation in some parts of the body

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Urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control)

Vision changes


Muscle weakness

Difficulty passing food

Involuntary muscle contractions


Pains not explainable in limbs

Kidney damage (diabetic nephropathy)

Persistent elevation of blood glucose can also cause damage to kidney function. This can lead to problems such as high blood pressure, and problems filtering out some potentially toxic substances that can be found in your blood.

Heart and blood vessel disease.

Diabetes can increase your risk of problems with your heart and vessels, due to hyperglycemia. This includes heart attacks, chest pain or angina and blockages in the arteries that nourish your heart’s blood

Other complications:

• Eye damage (retinopathy)

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• Increased skin and mouth diseases: Diabetes can make you more susceptible to bacterial and fungal infections.

• Osteoporosis: decreased bone density

How to Prevent Complications:

• Don’t smoke, or drink

• Make sure that the foods you eat daily don’t give you more than 30% of what you need in fat

• Frequently do the physical exercise you love to do most

• Ask your doctor to order a cholesterol test at least once a year

• At your doctor’s appointment, ask to have your blood pressure measured

• After twelve years of age, visit the eye doctor at least once a year

• Order the micro albuminuria test annually.

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